Aviation | Incident & Accident

Transportation Safety Board of Canada

Aviation Safety Investigation: The purpose of an aviation safety investigation into an aircraft accident of incident is to prevent a recurrence; It is not to determine or apportion blame or liability.

Aviation Occurence:

  • Any accident of incident associated with the operation of an aircraft, and
  • any situation or condition that the Board has reasonable grounds to believe could, if left unattended, induce an accident or incident described in paragraph(a).
    • Collision – Impact, other than an impact associated with normal operating circumstances, between aircraft or between an aircraft and another object or terrain.
    • Dangerous goods – see transportation dangerous goods
    • Operation – activities for which an aircraft is used from the time any person boards the aircraft with the intention of flight until they disembark.
    • Risk of collision – situation in which an aircraft comes so close to being involved in a collision that a threat to the safety of any person, property or the environment exist

Serious injury:

  • a fracture of any bone , except simple fractures of fingers, toes or the nose;
  • lacerations that cause severe hemorrhage or nerve, muscle or tendon damage;
  • an injury to an internal organ;
  • second or third degree burns, or any burns affecting more than 5% of the body surface;
  • a verified exposure to infectious substances or injurious radiation; or
  • an injury that is likely to require hospitalization.


  • (1) a person is killed or sustains a serious injury as a result of:
  • (a) being on board the aircraft,
  • (b) coming into direct contact with any part of the aircraft,
  • including parts that have become detached from the
  • aircraft, or
  • (c) being directly exposed to jet blast, rotor down wash or
  • propeller wash, the aircraft sustains structural failure or
  • damage that adversely affects the aircraft’s structural
  • strength, performance or flight characteristics and
  • would normally require major repair or replacement of
  • any affected component, except for:
  • (d) engine failure or damage, when the damage is limited
  • to the engine, its cowlings or accessories, or
  • (e) damage limited to propellers, wing tips, antennae,
  • tires, brakes, fairings or small dents or puncture holes
  • in the aircraft’s skin, or
  • (2) the aircraft is missing or inaccessible.

Mandatory Reportable Incidents

In the case of an incident involving an aircraft having a
maximum certificated take-off weight greater than 2 250 kg,
or of an aircraft being operated under an air operator certificate
issued under Part VII of the Canadian Aviation Regulations:

  • (1) an engine fails or is shut down as a precautionary
  • measure,
  • (2) a power train transmission gearbox malfunction occurs,
  • (3) smoke is detected or a fire occurs on board,
  • (4) difficulties in controlling the aircraft are encountered
  • owing to any aircraft system malfunction, weather
  • phenomena, wake turbulence, uncontrolled vibrations or
  • operations outside the flight envelope,
  • (5) the aircraft fails to remain within the intended landing
  • or take-off area, lands with all or part of the landing gear
  • retracted or drags a wing tip, an engine pod or any other
  • part of the aircraft,
  • (6) a crew member whose duties are directly related to the
  • safe operation of the aircraft is unable to perform their
  • duties as a result of a physical incapacitation which
  • poses a threat to the safety of persons, property or the
  • environment,
  • (7) depressurization of the aircraft occurs that requires an
  • emergency descent,
  • (8) a fuel shortage occurs that requires a diversion or
  • requires approach and landing priority at the destination
  • of the aircraft,
  • (9) the aircraft is refuelled with the incorrect type of fuel or
  • contaminated fuel,
  • (10) a collision, a risk of collision or a loss of separation occurs,
  • (11) a crew member declares an emergency or indicates an
  • emergency that requires priority handling by air traffic
  • services or the standing by of emergency response
  • services,
  • (12) a slung load is released unintentionally or as a
  • precautionary or emergency measure from the aircraft,
  • or
  • (13) any dangerous goods are released in or from the aircraft

Information to report

The report must contain the following information:

  • (1) the type, model, nationality and registration marks of the
  • aircraft;
  • (2) the name of the owner, operator, pilot-in-command and,
  • if applicable, hirer of the aircraft;
  • (3) the last point of departure and the intended destination of
  • the aircraft, including the date and time of the departure;
  • (4) the date and time of the occurrence;
  • (5) the name of the person providing air traffic services
  • related to the occurrence;
  • (6) the number of crew members, passengers and other
  • persons involved in the occurrence and the number of
  • those who were killed or sustained serious injuries as a
  • result of the occurrence;
  • (7) the location of the occurrence by reference to an easily
  • defined geographical point, or by latitude and longitude;
  • (8) a description of the occurrence and the extent of any
  • resulting damage to the environment and to the aircraft
  • and any other property;
  • (9) a list of any dangerous goods carried on board or released
  • from the aircraft, including the shipping name or UN
  • number and consignor and consignee information;
  • (10) if the aircraft is missing or inaccessible:
  • (a) the last known position of the aircraft by reference to
  • an easily defined geographical point, or by latitude
  • and longitude, including the date and time that the
  • aircraft was at that position, and
  • (b) the actions taken or planned to locate or gain access
  • to the aircraft;
  • (11) a description of any action taken or planned to protect
  • persons, property and the environment;
  • (12) the name and title of the person making the report and
  • the phone number and address at which they can be
  • reached; and
  • (13) any information specific to the occurrence that the Board
  • requires.

The person making the report must send to the Board as soon as possible and by the quickest means available, all the information required that is available at the time of the occurrence; and the remainder of that information as soon as it becomes available within 30 days after the occurrence.

Other occurances

Any other incident indicative of a deficiency or discrepancy
in the Canadian air transportation system may be reported in
writing to the TSB. Sufficient details concerning the incident
should be provided to enable the identification of action
required to remedy the deficiency or discrepancy.

Keeping and Preservation of Evidence

Every person having possession of or control over evidence
relating to a transportation occurrence must keep and preserve
the evidence unless the Board provides otherwise. This is
not to be construed as preventing any person from taking
the necessary measures to ensure the safety of any person,
property or the environment. Any person who takes these
measures must, to the extent possible in the circumstances
and before taking those measures, record the evidence by the
best means available and advise the Board of their actions.

source: AIM

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